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Week

Jan 22,2016

News in brief

Africa and the African Union

The 26th AU Summit opened this week on Thursday (January 21) with the 31st ordinary session of the Permanent Representative Committee. The Summit concludes at the end of next week with the Assembly of the Heads of State and Government (January 30-31). The theme of the Summit is: “2016: African Year of Human Rights with a particular focus on the Rights of Women”. (See article)

The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) on Saturday (January 16) announced that “IGAD is celebrating its 30 years since its establishment as a regional body to address issues of drought and mitigate the effects of desertification in the greater Horn of Africa.” (See article)

The Inter Governmental Authority on Development’s Security Sector Program (ISSP) and Global Counter-Terrorism (GCTF) held a regional workshop at the weekend to look into ways that the IGAD Member States including Tanzania can work together to criminalize terrorism financing as well as learn, share and adopt best practices in dealing with counter-terrorism.

The UNHCR said that 92,446 people, the majority from the Horn, arrived in Yemen by boat in 2015. At least two thirds have arrived since March 2015. The UNHCR issued a warning this week about the difficulties of the situation in Yemen and the dangers of the sea crossing. It said three dozen people died on 8 January this year and 95 deaths were reported last year.

Ethiopia

Prime Minister Hailemariam Dessalegn is attending the World Economic Forum in Davos this week (January 20-23). The theme of the Forum is “The Fourth Industrial Revolution”, but subjects discussed also include the slow down in the Chinese economy, proposed UK referendum on whether to stay or leave the EU, Europe’s refugee crisis and climate change. The Prime Minister told the Forum that Ethiopia had already embarked on implementing the Sustainable Development Goals for inclusive, sustainable and resilient development and called on the international community to work for ending poverty by 2030.

Prime Minister Hailemariam Dessalegn met with a US Congressional delegation to Ethiopia led by Congressman Ed Royce, Chairman of the House Foreign Relations Committee at the weekend. Discussions covered collective security, economic cooperation, counter terrorism, South Sudan peace and ways of supporting the drought affected areas in Ethiopia. Congressman Royce welcomed their good relations in economic cooperation, counter terrorism and other areas; Ranking Committee Member, Eliot Engle, described Ethiopia as a very valued partner.

Dr. Tedros, Foreign Minister of Ethiopia and Chair of IGAD’s Council of Ministers attended the inauguration of the South-West Regional State Parliament in Baidoa, in Somalia’s Bay Region. He also visited Ethiopian troops serving with AMISOM who are stationed in Baidoa. (See article)  

The FAO announced a new response plan for the drought in Ethiopia on Friday last week (January 15), to provide US$50 million to assist farmers and livestock keepers in 2016 to reduce food gaps and restore agricultural production and incomes. (See article)

Ethiopian Airlines announced on Wednesday (January 20) that in will start a service to New York City’s JFK Airport in June 2016 three days a week. The flight will go via Lome in Togo. This is Ethiopian’s fourth destination in the Americas.

Ethiopia is hosting the 2016 African Livestock Exhibition and Congress (ALEC) over this weekend from January 22 to 24.The Director General of the Ethiopian Meat and Dairy Industry Development Institute said the occasion would help local industries to interact with others for trade and investment in the livestock sector.

Major-General Hassen Ebrahim Mussa was appointed as Force Commander of the UN Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on Saturday (January 16). Major General Hassen was previously Head of Ethiopia’s Peacekeeping Coordination Center and has served as Sector Commander North in UNAMID.

Djibouti

President Guelleh announced on Wednesday (January 20) that he had signed agreements with China to set up a trade zone and establish a legal framework for Chinese banks to operate in Djibouti.

The World Food Program announced on Wednesday (January 20) that it was opening a new Horn of Africa logistics base in Djibouti to expand its ability to respond to major crises in the region, including the conflicts in South Sudan and Yemen and the drought in the region.

Eritrea

The U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) on Wednesday (January 20) called for the immediate release of the former Eritrean Orthodox Patriarch Abune Antonios who was removed from his position by the Government and detained ten years earlier.

Eritrea launched the beginning of its Silver Jubilee Independence Celebrations on Friday (January 15) with the lighting of the Independence Torch in Nakfa. Major General Humed Karikare, Commander of the Eritrean Navy, presided over the torch lighting ceremony. The Independence Torch will cover more than three thousand kilometers around the country before reaching Asmara on Independence Day in May.

Kenya

Following the killing of Kenyan troops when Al-Shabaab overran an AMISOM base in Somalia, President Kenyatta expressed his deepest sympathy to the families and loved ones of those who died and said “We will not be cowed by these cowards; we will continue in Somalia to fulfill our mission; we will hunt down the criminals involved. Our soldiers’ blood will not be shed in vain.” (See article)

The Chief of the Kenya Defense Forces, General Samson Mwathethe, said on Thursday (January 21) that Kenya believed Mwalimu Janow, the leader of the Al-Shabaab brigade which attacked El Adde, had been killed in Kenyan air strikes on Al-Shabaab bases. (See article)

Somalia

Somalia’s partners, including the United Nations, the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development, the European Union, United States, United Kingdom, Sweden and Italy issued a statement on Tuesday (January 19) after meeting President Mohamud emphasizing the importance of reaching agreement on the election process in Somalia.(See article)

The meeting of the National Consultative Forum in Kismayo at the end of last week failed to reach an agreement on the electoral process for the planned elections in August.(See article)

Al-Shabaab claimed that it had killed a hundred Kenyan troops when it attacked and overran the AMISOM forward base at El Adde in Gedo Region on Friday (January 15). (See article)

The new Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Somalia, Michael Keating arrived in Mogadishu on Monday (January 18) to take up his post, and held talks with both President Mohamud and Prime Minister Sharmarke.

The South-West Regional State Parliament was formally inaugurated on Tuesday (January 19) in Baidoa, the capital of the South-West State. (See article)

The European Commission announced on Wednesday (January 20) that it was providing €29 million in humanitarian support for the most vulnerable populations in Somalia in 2016.

South Sudan

On Sunday (January 17), the Chairperson of the Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission (JMEC) in South Sudan, Festus Mogae appointed Guinea’s former Prime Minister, François Lounceny Fall as his deputy.

In an interview with Al Jazerra on Friday last week (January 15) the Head of the Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission (JMEC), Festus Mogae, said President Kiir's unilateral decision to split South Sudan's 10 states into is going to have a disruptive effect on progress towards peace.  He said the move was inconsistent with what was envisaged in the peace agreement and was, therefore, “not acceptable.

The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) said on Tuesday (January 19) that aid agencies have launched a humanitarian appeal for 2016, calling for US $1.3 billion to provide assistance to 5.1 million people in South Sudan. OCHA said a total of 114 humanitarian organizations need more funds for project plans to be implemented in 2016.

The UNHCR office in Ethiopia said the number of South Sudan refugees crossing the border into Ethiopia had sharply declined during the recent weeks after the two sides began to implement the Compromise Peace Agreement signed last August. The UNHCR said the number of refugees from South Sudan that had arrived in Ethiopia between December 15, 2013 and January 10, 2016, had reached 226,473.

Sudan

Following the fall in oil prices, President Omar Al-Bashir on Thursday (January 21) agreed to review the oil transit fees agreed with South Sudan in 2012. The move followed a written request from the South Sudan Government.

The Foreign Ministry held its sixth diplomatic forum for over 80 ambassadors and charge d’affaires from abroad and other officials on Monday (January 18) to discuss the issues and challenges facing the Sudanese diplomacy besides the future plans of the diplomatic work. Discussions covered the objectives of Sudan’s foreign policy, the exit of UNAMID, foreign cooperation and international issues such as human rights, water and children.

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The 26th African Union Summit opens in Addis Ababa

The 26th AU Summit opened this week on Thursday (January 21) and will continue until Sunday (January 31) at the headquarters of the African Union in Addis Ababa. The theme of the 26th Summit is: “2016: African Year of Human Rights with a particular focus on the Rights of Women”. It concludes at the end of next week with the Assembly of the Heads of State and Government. The Summit brings together all the African Union’s policy making organs, with representatives from the Regional Economic Communities (RECs), the private sector, the Diaspora (the 6th region of the union), civil society organization, partner organizations, continental and international media, invited guests and dignitaries worldwide.

The 26th AU Summit begins with the 31st Ordinary Session of the Permanent Representative Committee (PRC) which opened on Thursday (January 21) and lasts until Saturday (January 23). The Committee, whose opening was addressed by the Chairperson of the PRC and which heard welcome remarks from the Chairperson of the AU Commission, then considered the reports of the activities of the African Union sub-committees. These include the reports of the advisory Sub-Committee on Administrative, Budgetary and Financial Matters; the Sub-Committee on Structural Reforms; the Sub-Committee on Programs and Conferences; the Sub-Committee on Refugees and Returnees and Internally Displaced Persons in Africa. Other reports cover the conclusions of the Sub-Committee on Economic and Trade Matters; the Sub-Committee on NEPAD; the Sub-Committee on Contributions and the Sub-Committee of the Special Emergency Fund for Drought and Famine in Africa. The reports of other AU organs such as the African Commission on Human and People’s Rights (ACHPR); the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (AfCHPR); and the Economic, Social and Council of the African Union (ECOSOCC) are also discussed. The Permanent Representatives, after adopting the reports of the Sub-Committees, deliberate on the draft agenda to be presented to the Executive Council of Foreign Ministers for consideration before it is submitted to the Assembly of the Union for adoption.  

The 28th Ordinary Session of the Executive Council of Foreign Ministers takes place on Wednesday and Thursday next week (January 27-28). The session will be preceded by a Ministerial retreat of the Executive Council in Mekelle, the capital of Tigray Regional State between Sunday (January 24 and Tuesday (January 26).  The session on Wednesday will be opened by the Chairperson of the Executive Council, the Foreign Minister of Zimbabwe, and will hear statements from AU Commission Chairperson, Dr. Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon, and Dr. Carlos Lopes, Executive Secretary of the UN Economic Commission for Africa. The Ministers deliberate in closed session the report of the PRC, the annual report of the Chairperson of the Commission for 2015, and the revised African Union Commission budget for the 2016 Fiscal year. Among the reports the Executive Council will consider are the Report of the Ad-hoc Ministerial Committee on the Scale of Assessment; the Report of the Ministerial Committee on Elections of the Members of the Commission in June/July 2016; the Progress Report of the Ministerial Committee on the Challenges of the Ratification/ Accession and Implementation of the OAU/AU Treaties, and the Ministerial Committee on African Candidature in the International System. 

The Executive Council meeting will also include the election and appointment of the fifteen members of the Peace and Security Council, and of one member of the African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (ACERWC). The session will debate and forward the draft agenda and decisions to the Assembly of Heads of State and Government whose 26th Ordinary Session takes place on Saturday and Sunday next week (January 30 and 31). The particular focus on the rights of woman follows on from last year’s declaration of 2015 as the “Year of Women Empowerment and Development towards Africa’s Agenda 2063”. The Session of the Assembly will as usual begin with the election of the New Chairperson of the African Union for the year 2016, to succeed Robert Mugabe, the President of Zimbabwe.

Prior to the opening of the 31st ordinary session of the Permanent Representative Committee, the African Union also held the 8th African Union Gender Pre-Summit attended by over 400 women worldwide. With participation from 45 African countries, delegates reiterated their commitment to ensure that the recommendations stipulated in the Addis Ababa Communiqué on women and youths’ development be fully implemented by their respective governments. Addressing participants on behalf of the AUC Chairperson, Commissioner Aisha Abdullahi, Commissioner for Political Affairs, said she believed that the communiqué adopted during this Summit would  achieve the main goals of gender development which is to mobilize women around common continental issues, and to ensure that gender remain high on the AU Agenda. She congratulated all the Women and Gender Ministers following the successful outcome of their Specialised Technical Committee, stressing the importance of focusing on the mobilization of women from all works of live, to participate in the implementation of Agenda 2063, in its entire dimension. The Commissioner joined delegates in congratulating the two African Union Kwame Nkrumah Scientific Awards; Laureates for the Regional Awards for Women, Professor Merzouk Hafida from Algeria, and Professor Yalemtsehay Mekonnen from Ethiopia. The Commissioner highlighted the importance of Science, Technology and Innovation as valuable opportunities to empower women, noting that AU Agenda 2063 lays emphasis on Science, Technology and Innovation as tools for achieving continental development goals.

Recognizing and congratulating the two laureates of the AU Kwame Nkrumah Scientific Awards, De Paul Ikounga, Commissioner for Human Resources Science and Technology noted that the Award was a holistic and deliberate measure taken by the AU Commission to maintain science and technology at the top of Africa’s development, cooperation and political agenda. He urged Member States, Regional Economic Communities and key stakeholders to promote and support the participation of African citizens particularly women in achieving the goals of this award and become involved fully in Africa’s sustainable development.

Ambassador Gary Quince, Head of Delegation of the European Union to the African Union commended the commitment of the African Union to the support of gender equality, and underscored the importance of prioritizing science and technology and the continuous involvement of women. These, he said, were key pillars of development.

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IGAD celebrates the 30th anniversary of its foundation

The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) started the celebrations of its 30th anniversary holding several events in Djibouti City on Saturday (January 16).  One of these was a panel discussion, the first of a series, to take a thematic look at development in the Greater Horn of Africa for the past three decades and reflect on the region “we want thirty years from now”. The panel included three former Executive Secretaries of IGAD, Dr. David Muduuli from Uganda (1991 to 1996), Dr. Tekeste Ghebray from Eritrea (1996 to 2000) and Dr. Attalla Bashir from Sudan (2000 to 2008), as well as the present Executive Secretary since 2008, Ambassador Engineer Mahboub Maalim and Djibouti’s Foreign Minister Mahamoud Ali Youssouf. The panelists shared their experiences and views around the main topic “The Prospects and Challenges of Peace, Security, Economic Development and Integration in the Region, as well as how best IGAD can position itself for Higher Impact.” It was a platform for experience sharing, allowing the dissemination of information and inspiring a broad discussion of ways forward to address the many challenges the region faces.

Other IGAD workshops at the end of last week and the weekend included a workshop aimed at Establishing an IGAD Gender Management System within the framework of IGAD Institutional Strengthening Action Plan and another on Criminalizing Terrorist Financing as a Good Practice in Prevention, Investigation and Prosecution of Terrorism Cases in the Horn of Africa. The first of these had the overall objective “to identify in a comprehensive and critical manner strategies and actions for strengthening leadership and accountability measures for gender mainstreaming at IGAD Secretariat, Specialized Offices and Programs.” The Director of the Economic Cooperation and Social Development Division of IGAD, Mr. El Sadeg Abdallah, told the 50 participants drawn from IGAD Member States, COMESA staff members and IGAD personnel, that workshop was a clear demonstration of IGAD’s firm commitment to the agenda of Gender. He said it was “unacceptable to find that gender inequalities remain a prominent feature of our socio-economic, political, and cultural fabric,” and the workshop would provide vital inputs to the IGAD Institutional Gender Policy and to the IGAD Gender Strategy 2016-2020.  This aims to put in place within the existing organizational framework, the process of mainstreaming gender into all areas of the organization’s work, in order to achieve greater gender equality and equity within the context of sustainable development.

The workshop for Criminalizing Terrorist Financing was held in Kampala by IGAD’s Security Sector Program (ISSP) and Global Counter-Terrorism (GCTF) to look into ways that IGAD Member States including Tanzania could work together to criminalize terrorism financing as well as learn, share and adopt best practices as stipulated in the Rabat Memorandum. It looked at the challenges and explored international anti-money laundering and countering terrorism legal regimes and initiatives; regional strategies, mechanisms for combating money laundering and financing terrorism; challenges faced by private financial institutions in implementing AML/CFT legal regimes, and the role these institutions play in the transfer of funds. The workshop was opened by the Director of IGAD Security Sector (ISSP) Commander Muluneh Abebe, who noted the importance of countering the financing of terrorism as key in the fight against terror. He urged enhanced collaboration, harmonization of laws and exchange of information between the IGAD Member States to eradicate mutual threat of terrorist financing.  The discussions sought ways through which the capacities of the IGAD Member States can be enhanced to prosecute and apply criminal sanctions against terrorism financing as well as to obligate states to criminalize the financing of terrorism, terrorist acts and terrorist organizations and to designate terror-related offenses. Member States were called to put measures in place to detect the physical cross-border transportation of currency and bearer negotiable instruments. They noted that human trafficking and corruption were sources of financing terrorist activities and urged law makers and judicial bodies to put in place more stringent penalties and sanctions against those that make false declarations, including the freezing and seizure of terrorist funds. The workshop brought together a team of experts from various fields including financial forensics, international law prosecution, financial regulatory institutions, law enforcement agencies and counter transnational organized crimes.

The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in Eastern Africa is a regional organization of eight countries of the Horn of Africa established in 1996 with the aim of promoting economic cooperation and social development, peace building and human security, as well as environmental protection and food security. It was created in 1996 to supersede the Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD) which was founded in 1986. Severe droughts and other natural disasters between 1974 and 1984 caused widespread famine, ecological degradation and economic hardship in the Eastern Africa region. In 1983 and 1984, six countries in the Horn of Africa, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda, took action through the United Nations to establish an intergovernmental body for development and drought control in their region. The Assembly of Heads of State and Government met in Djibouti in January 1986 to sign the Agreement which officially launched IGADD with its headquarters in Djibouti. The State of Eritrea became the seventh member after attaining independence in 1993.

Although IGADD was originally established to coordinate the efforts of member states to combat drought and desertification, it became clear that it could also provide a regular forum where leaders of the Eastern African countries were able to solve other political and socioeconomic issues in a regional context. Realizing this, the Heads of State and Government of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan and Uganda, at an extra-ordinary Summit on 18 April 1995, resolved to expand the mandate of IGADD. They made a declaration to revitalize IGADD and expand cooperation among the member states. This revitalized IGADD was renamed the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD). IGAD’s member states are now Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda, though Eritrea suspended its membership in April 2007 and not since rejoined the organization.

IGAD, as one of the five regional pillars of the African Economic Community (AEC) alongside COMESA, ECCAS, IGAD and SADC, carries out  a number of activities and programs in the areas of agriculture and food security, peace and security, and economic cooperation and social development. Among these are the IGAD Drought Disaster Resilience and Sustainability Initiative (IDDRSI), the Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism (CEWARN), the IGAD Climate Prediction and Application Centre (ICPAC), the IGAD Regional HIV and AIDS Partnership Program (IRAPP), the IGAD Inter Parliamentary Union, the IGAD Centre for Pastoral Areas and Livestock Development (ICPALD), the IGAD Security Sector Program (IISSP), the Somalia Facilitation Office (SFO) and the Office of Special Envoys for South Sudan (OSESS).

IGAD has made it clear it aims to work to be the premier regional organization for achieving peace, prosperity and regional integration in the region. It also works to promote joint development strategies and gradually harmonize macro-economic policies and programs in the social, technological and scientific fields, as well as harmonize policies with regard to trade, customs, transport, communications, agriculture, and natural resources, and promote free movement of goods, services, and people within the region.

Ethiopia has been committed to IGAD from the outset and it has played a significant and prominent role in the organization. Its forward-looking foreign and national security policies and the country’s role in regional peace and security are concomitant with IGAD’s objectives. Its role as Chair of IGAD have meant it has been deeply involved in the efforts in bringing conflict groups in South Sudan to the negotiating table and through CEWRAN (Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism) it has also addressed some of the conflicts between cross-border pastoral border peoples. It has also joined hands with other states in the region to fight extremists in Somalia as well as playing a long-standing role in the efforts to re-establish an effective government in Somalia. It has also provided significant numbers of peace keeping troops for peace keeping missions. Ethiopia was actively involved when IGAD forces intervened during the 2006 Islamic Courts insurgency in Somalia and in the planned IGAD Peace and Support Mission in Somalia (IGASOM), a precursor to the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM). Ethiopia has also worked hard and long to try to resolve tensions with Eritrea, despite Eritrea’s continued and still active efforts to destabilize both Ethiopia and the region. As Ambassador Mahboub Maalim, the Executive Secretary of IGAD, has said the situation over Eritrea “can only be resolved through dialogue, and only when Eritrea is ready for dialogue.”

 

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Somalia’s National Consultative Forum meeting in Kismayo ends without agreement…

The meeting of the National Consultative Forum in Kismayo which opened on Thursday last week (January 14)  ended on Saturday without reaching any decision on the method to be used in the elections due to be held in August this year. Although no agreement was reached at Kismayo, Prime Minister Omar Sharmarke expressed optimism over the ongoing discussions on the electoral process. He said the Federal Government would soon release a schedule of follow-up meetings to the Kismayo conference to come up with the final decision for the elections. He said “We have recorded tremendous success in our last meeting which brought the leaders closer than before. The Federal government will make extra efforts to ensure successful completion of the national forums. We are left with a few technical formalities, which we hope to sort out soon.” Puntland President Abdiweli Mohamed Ali said afterwards that there had been a breakthrough in Kismayo and he said the talks had been successful as the leaders had narrowed their divisive issues.

Another meeting is expected to take place soon According to Somalia’s Provisional Federal Constitution, the mandate of both the Somali Federal Parliament and of the Government will come to an end in August and September 2016, respectively. The Federal Government had earlier ruled out the possibility of one-person- one-vote elections because of continued security concerns. The main difference of opinion in the discussions at Kismayo was between those who wanted an electoral process to take place on the basis of constituencies in either the districts or the federal states, and those who supported a continuation of the 4.5 clan-based formula that was used to elect Parliament in September 2012. Another option proposed was to extend the life of the present Parliament for a year to allow for further deliberations.

Prior to the meeting, the heads of the Puntland and Jubaland administrations recommended holding the election on the basis of constituencies within the regional states, either organized in the 18 regions identified by the draft constitution or at the federal state level, though there was no agreement over which would be most appropriate. The Federal Government and leaders from Galmudug and South-Western administrations suggested an enhanced version of the system of clan elders and the 4.5 formula, based on the country’s four major clans plus a cluster of five small clans, for the election. This was the system used for the election of the Parliament in 2012. 

Earlier, the National Consultative Forum meeting in December found that the regional consultations which it had carried out had produced no overall agreement for the election process. Its “Mogadishu Declaration” called for Parliament to have balanced constituency and clan representation, electoral colleges with representation from women, to vote in Federal capitals, enhanced representation of women, youth and marginalized groups, recommendations for establishing an Upper House, and for a political roadmap to be developed. Among other things the Forum proposed that 30% of the 275 parliamentary seats be reserved for women. It said the final decision over the electoral process would be held in at the Kismayo meeting.

Following the Kismayo meeting, representatives of the United Nations, the AU, IGAD, European Union, United States, United Kingdom, Sweden and Italy issued a statement on Tuesday (January 19) firmly reiterating that any extension of the term of office for Parliament or the President would not be possible. The international community and donors have said on several earlier occasions that Somalia’s Vision 2016 plan must be delivered without extension. It told Somali leaders to put the interests of the nation first, to complete the Somali-led and Somali-owned process that began in July last year. “Time is short, and much remains to be done to ensure an electoral process can be implemented by August without delay,” the statement added. According to Somalia’s Provisional Federal Constitution, adopted in 2012, the mandates of the Somali Federal Parliament and of the Government come to an end in August and September 2016 respectively.

The statement followed a meeting with President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, Prime Minister Omar Abdisrashid Ali Sharmarke, and Speaker Mohamed Osman Jawari the previous day (January 19), the representatives of the international community underlined their expectation that Somali leaders would present, in the coming days, an agreed model for the electoral process later this year, together with an implementation plan and a political roadmap for the period 2016-2020, which they had committed themselves to in the ‘Mogadishu Declaration’ adopted at the conclusion of the  previous meeting of  the National Consultative Forum held in Mogadishu on December 16 last year. The international partners welcomed the discussions in Kismayo and the apparent narrowing of the gaps between Somali leaders on an electoral model for 2016.  They said it was positive that Somali leaders had spent several days deliberating on the most appropriate and feasible model for the electoral process to be implemented later this year.  They were disappointed that no agreement had been reached yet but welcomed the commitment to urgently achieve a compromise.

In their talks, the international representatives underlined their continued strong expectation that there would be no extension of the constitutionally mandated term limits of the legislature and the executive. This reinforced the imperative for talks to continue and for an agreement to be reached shortly. According to UNSOM, the international partners offered their support to Somali leaders as they continued their efforts to agree on a detailed electoral model.  They looked forward to a meeting of the Somali leaders to finalize the electoral model. They called on all leaders to engage constructively and in a spirit of compromise and stressed their readiness to assist the Federal Government and all other stakeholders in this process. They also pointed out that with consultations of the members of the UN Security Council on 28 January and the forthcoming African Union summit in Addis Ababa just days later, they expected work on the electoral model, implementation plan and political roadmap would be completed “well in advance” of these important meetings.

…. Somalia’s South-West Regional Parliament inaugurated

Somalia’s South-West Regional State Parliament was formally inaugurated on Tuesday this week  (January 19) in Baidoa, the capital of the South-West State. The President of the Interim South West Administration told the new MPs  that the immediate tasks they should undertake included “reconciliation in south west regions and the whole of Somalia, liberation and reconstruction of the remaining areas in south west, and in enacting of legislation.” The newly elected Speaker of the regional assembly, Abdukadir Sharif Sheikhuna, promised that the Members of the Parliament  would “ work diligently to uphold the federal and regional constitutions. As a parliament, we will do our best to be united, collaborative and strive to bring law and order in Somalia.”

The ceremony was attended by Federal President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, the Speaker of the Federal Parliament, Mohamed Osman Jawari, Ethiopia’s Foreign Minister and Chairman of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development Council of Ministers, Dr.  Tedros Adhanom, as well as the Deputy Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary ¬General (DSRSG) for Somalia, Raisedon Zenenga, and the Deputy Special Representative of the Chairperson of the African Union Commission Lydia Wanyoto.

Dr. Tedros congratulated the Somali people, the Federal Government and South-West State Regional Administration for the successful election of the region’s parliament. He stressed the inauguration of the state parliament was one of the most important milestones in the building process of peace and stability in Somalia and emphasized that peace and stability as well as development in Somalia had a major impact on the region. He underlined that nation building was a gradual process and the Somali people and government should work in hand in hand to realize a peaceful and prosperous Somalia. Dr. Tedros said it was time for Somalia’s federal and regional government leaders to focus urgently on to provide the necessary constructive dialogue and discussion to ensure the socio-economic and political interests of the Somali people. Ethiopia’s Foreign Minister reiterated that Ethiopia would always stand with the people and Government of Somalia in its efforts to achieve peace and stability in the country.

Raisedon Zenenga, the Deputy SRSG said that the inauguration of the new Parliament was  a testimony to Somalia’s progress on all fronts. He commended the inclusion of women in the parliament which has allocated 30 seats for women, and said this was an exemplary example for Somalia’s other regional states and the Federal Government. He described the occasion as “marking a major milestone in the implementation of federalism in Somalia, and in reaching a new milestone today with the inauguration of the regional assembly.” Mr. Zenenga called on the members of the new parliament to work to bring about consensus for the election later this year, and he took the opportunity to reiterate the UN’s commitment to realize a peaceful Somalia.

During his visit to Baidoa, Dr. Tedros also visited Ethiopian troops serving with AMISOM. He told the troops that their unwavering commitment and efforts to bring peace in Somalia was much appreciated.

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An AMISOM base at El-Adde in Gedo region of Somalia overrun

An AMISOM forward base at El-Adde in Gedo region was attacked and overrun on Friday by Al-Shabaab. The base was manned by a company of Kenyan troops which had arrived there only a few days earlier. The attack, at dawn, was carried out by an unusually large Al-Shabaab force, an estimated 300 militants belonging to what Al-Shabaab calls the Saleh Nabhany Brigade.

It appears that suicide bombers drove three Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosive Devices (VBIED) into the camp and one, a huge bomb with a fragmentation radius of 200 meters, was detonated in the center of the camp.  Al-Shabaab fighters then charged in. There have been reports that one of the vehicles used in the attack was an Armored Personnel Carrier captured from Burundian peacekeepers last year. Reports from Kenya indicate that some Al-Shabaab fighters were also killed in the explosions as well as in the subsequent fighting. The attackers apparently had two anti-aircraft guns set up at a nearby school which meant that reinforcements could not be flown in. El Adde was the third AMISOM forward operating base that al-Shabaab has overrun during the last year. In 2015, it attacked AMISOM’s base at Leego, killing more than 50 Burundian soldiers and stealing equipment, vehicles and arms. In September, it stormed AMISOM’s base at Janaale, killing 19 Ugandan soldiers and taking others hostage.

Following the attack, Kenyan Defense Forces launched a number of air raids and carried out a series of counter-operations in the areas. General Samson Mwathethe, Chief of the Kenyan Defense Forces said on Sunday that operations were going on but that they were “delicate” because some Kenyan soldiers have been captured and were being used as human shields. He said “We have information to the effect that some soldiers are being used as human shield and we will not allow any further casualties.” On Thursday (January 21), General Mwathethe, told journalists that it was believed that Mwalimu Janow, the leader of the Al- Shabaab brigade, who led this attack, had been killed in one of the air raids which targeted  two Al- Shabaab camps where the militants were hiding.

Al-Shabaab claimed it had killed at least 63 Kenyan soldiers in the attack, though it subsequently increased the figure to a hundred. The Kenyan authorities have yet to give any casualty figures. President Kenyatta said in a statement that: “Regrettably, some of our patriots in uniform paid the ultimate price; I want to take this opportunity to express mine and the country's deepest sympathy to the families and loved ones of the fallen. I stand with you. Our country stands with you.” He also vowed a strong response. He said: “We will not be cowed by these cowards. With our allies, we will continue in Somalia to fulfill our mission. We will hunt down the criminals involved. Our soldiers’ blood will not be shed in vain.”  The government established support facilities for the families of the fallen soldiers and those who were injured at the Kenyan Defense Force barracks in Eldoret, Gilgil and Nairobi.

Somali President Mohamud sent his condolences to President Kenyatta, to the people of Kenya and to the bereaved families of “brave soldiers killed in the line of duty while stabilizing Somalia.” He said Somalia stands shoulder-to-should with troop contributing countries in the hopes of Al-Shabaab neutralization over the coming months. He also underlined the need for more coordinated operations against Al-Shabaab. 

In a statement on Saturday, Somali Foreign Minister Abdusalam Omer, said the Government of Somalia shared “the pain of the loss of our Kenyan brothers and sisters in arms who came to restore and advance hope and peace in Somalia as part of AMISOM.” He said their loss was heart-breaking, but as “we mourn the passing of these heroes and stand in solidarity with the survivors and the families of all the victims, we must direct our collective anger at defeating the enemy: terrorism, one of the greatest challenges the world faces.” The Foreign Minister underlined that Somalia and Kenya were brotherly nations whose future prospects were intertwined: “what affects one will certainly impact on the other.” He emphasized that the two governments were working together to defeat terrorism. He said: “we are sharing intelligence and working alongside one another on the ground both in Somalia and Kenya.” He said the two governments had proved time and again that they would not allow Al-Shabaab to achieve their goal of dividing us, but he added that despite their collaborative efforts, more needed to be done, urgently to enhance knowledge sharing, border management and monitoring and economic development to close security gaps. 

The Minister, writing in Kenya’s Daily Nation, also said, “we also need to reach out to our youth who are being radicalized and misled by baseless ideological nonsense which rests on the twin pillars of hate and societal destruction.” He said “We will not and cannot rest until Al-Shabaab is militarily and ideologically annihilated for the mutual benefit of our two nations,” adding that “the surest way to deliver the killer blow to Al-Shabaab and terrorism in the Horn of Africa is for all nations to share information, enhancing border management and by making financial transactions more transparent. “ The Minister concluded: “We have a common enemy in terrorism and we must defeat this evil collectively for a safer, progressive and prosperous region and world.”

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The Brookings Institute looks at priorities for Africa in 2016

The Africa Growth Initiative at the US Brookings Institute has produced a report entitled “Foresight Africa, Top Priorities for the Continent in 2016.” The Africa Growth Initiative at the Institute is an initiative that brings together African scholars to provide US and other policymakers with high-quality research, expertise and innovative solutions that aims to promote Africa’s economic development. The Initiative also collaborates with research partners in the region to raise the African voice in global policy debates on Africa. In this year’s report emphasis is given to six themes that it believes place Africa at a tipping point. 

The first theme of the report is “Managing Economic Shocks: African Prospects in the Evolving External Environment” and it covers dealing with the effect of China’s slowdown in growth, and African prospects in the evolving external environment. It tries to assess the adverse effects of recent external economic shocks on Africa’s already slowing economic growth. According to the IMF, the region’s real GDP growth fell from 5.0 percent in 2014 to 3.75 percent in 2015 and will rebound to 4.3 percent in 2016. In fact, the report suggests the IMF may revise this downwards in the light of recent global and regional trends. Equally, the report argues that these sorts of changes are not always totally bad. They can create opportunities for appropriate and timely policy measures that can make a difference and which could help sub-Saharan African economies regain their growth momentum both in the short and long terms.

In 2008, Africa, like the rest of the world, faced a global financial shock, but it was in part insulated from it thanks to its less pronounced financial linkages with the rest of the world. In 2015 and 2016, however, the continent faces a “triple threat” from the changing global environment: the prices of Africa’s main exports, oil and minerals, have fallen significantly and are expected to remain low; the economy of Africa’s main bilateral trading partner, China, is slowing down; and external borrowing costs are increasing as the U.S. Federal Reserve raises U.S. interest rates, and the options for borrowing become more limited. In addition, there is climate change, with East and Southern Africa being most affected by the El Niño phenomenon this year.

The report argues that Sub-Saharan African countries will now need a two-pronged approach to accelerate their growth momentum, implementing macroeconomic policies to cope with the short-term effects of the external shocks, and implementing medium- to long-term structural policies. This changing environment makes 2016 an opportune year for policymakers to act to make fiscal reforms particularly in commodity exporting countries.  Equally, it is important to alleviate the impact of such policies on the poor. Other revenue boosting measures that should be considered include reducing tax expenditures, improving tax administration, and reviewing tax policy on luxury goods. It says now is also the time to review and prioritize expenditures and maximize the efficiency of budget spending. Policymakers should also consider broader policy responses to strengthen economic resilience. This means “successfully implementing the economic transformation agenda of the continent, starting with investment in infrastructure and kick-starting the engines of the economy beyond commodity exports. Increased domestic revenue mobilization also depends on a growing economy, and the changing environment should be a catalyst to expand the non-oil economy.”

The report says sub-Saharan Africa’s external environment is definitely becoming less supportive of African growth but  rather than seeing this as no more than a challenge, policymakers in 2016 should also see it as an opportunity to strengthen the resilience of their economies. It also underlines that despite the overall problems some African countries, and it mentions Côte d’Ivoire, the DRC, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Rwanda, and Tanzania, will be among the fastest-growing economies in the world in 2016.

The second theme is “Sustaining Domestic Growth: Structural Transformation depends on Jobs, Industry and SMEs”. It argues that having placed job creation and industrialization on the global agenda with the Sustainable Development Goals, Africa now needs to show leadership in designing and implementing the policies to achieve them. To compete in the global market for manufactures, African governments need to develop new policies to promote exports, build the capabilities of domestic firms, and foster industrial clusters. These are areas where financial support and new ideas from the aid industry have been lacking. Policies and institutions similar to the “export push” strategies adopted by countries in Asia since the 1970s are essential for breaking into global markets. Several African countries, Ethiopia, Ghana, and Kenya among them, have recently emphasized manufactured exports, but, the report cautions, there is little evidence that they have implemented the coherent set of policies that need to develop an effective export push.

To move from aspiration to implementation, governments across the region, it suggests, need to focus on three critical areas: policy and institutional reforms affecting exports, trade logistics, and regional integration. It also emphasizes that it is important sustainable industrial policies also need to be inclusive and to promote industries with job creation potential. Africa’s industrial sector, it notes, is dominated by micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) that very often lack affordable credit and access to dependable markets. Improving the growth prospects of these enterprises through market development training and strengthening linkages between MSMEs and larger enterprises will have significant implications for job creation and poverty reduction

“Supporting Human Development; Triumphs and Challenges on the Continent” is the third theme of the report. The report quotes the 2015 World Bank’s report “Poverty in a Rising Africa” as documenting substantial improvements in well-being in Africa and indicates this resonates with the new perspective of “Africa rising” and an “African 21st century.” Poverty rates are down, it points out, and other dimensions of human development have also significantly improved. The share of people in Africa living on less than $1.90 a day fell from 56% in 1990 to 43% in 2012. Substantial progress is also recorded in other dimensions of human development, especially in health and personal security. Since the mid-1990s, life expectancy at birth has risen by 6.2 years, and the prevalence of chronic malnutrition among children under 5 fell 6 percentage points. Deaths from politically motivated violence have declined. Tolerance and the incidence of gender-based domestic violence declined. But the report underlines although poverty rates continue to fall, the number of poor in sub-Saharan Africa is actually rising. Some countries have finally achieved agricultural sectors strong enough to support savings and investment by farmers but at the same time the five countries with the highest food and nutrition security needs in the world are also to be found in Africa. These issues along with inequality, fragile states, women’s empowerment, and climate resilience and what to do about them in 2016 were discussed. Contributors concluded that significant progress has been made in the arena of human development though Africa’s human development challenges remain enormous,

The fourth theme is “Capitalizing on Urbanization; the Importance of Planning, Infrastructure and Finance for Africa’s Growing Cities”. The report emphasizes the need for successful planning for urbanization as Africa is rapidly transforming both demographically and geographically. With the rapid growth of megacities on the continent, the urbanization rate is expected to reach 50% by 2035 and this is expected to grow even higher. This growth demonstrates a great need for better urban management and institution building. It notes that the next United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development, Habitat III, will be held in Quito, Ecuador, in October. This will specifically aim to “reinvigorate the global commitment to sustainable urbanization and focus on the implementation of a New Urban Agenda, building on the Habitat Agenda of Istanbul in 1996.” The report underlines the importance of including rural areas and intermediate cities, as well as large cities in the calculations. Development in African cities today, it says, is not in the megacities of Kinshasa, Lagos, and Cairo, but in intermediate cities that are directly linked with their surrounding environment.

“Maintaining Governance Gains; the National and Regional Agendas” is the fifth theme of the report, noting that 2016 brings a number of complex political and governance challenges continuing from the previous year. It also points out that the quality of governance in sub-Saharan Africa varies wildly. 2015, it suggests, did see some important successes, including Nigeria’s peacefully election and the signing of the Tripartite Free Trade Agreement. Equally, it also saw turmoil like the civil wars in the Central African Republic and South Sudan and the continuing concerns among the Nile riparian states. 2016 could see a continuation of these trends, and the report covers how leaders might address the continuing obstacles to peace, prosperity, and good governance at both the national and regional levels in 2016. It concludes, however, that transformative growth that requires robust capital flows, greatly improved infrastructure, enhanced labor skills, diversified exports, and the revolutionizing of agriculture, is still more theoretical than reality over much of the continent.

“Expanding Africa’s Trade; Creating a Comparative Advantage and Strengthening Regional Partnerships” is the final issue for the report. This looks at the way Africa responds to and addresses the changing international trade environment. It worries that Africa is not a party to the US/EU Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership agreement, or the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership agreement between ASEAN states and other Asian economies. At the same time, little progress is being made on the WTO Doha Round negotiations. There is a risk that Africa’s views are being left out, and this will make it increasingly difficult for African businesses to compete globally. It emphasizes the importance of  the Tripartite Free Trade Association between three major regional African economic communities which comes into force this month – which will comprise 26 countries, 640 million people, and have a total GDP of $1.2 trillion. It is also a building block towards the Continental FTA, to which the Africa Union is committed to completing by 2017. That would incorporate 54 African countries representing over 1 billion people and $3 trillion in GDP, and, the report suggests, would stimulate intra-African trade by around 50% ($35 billion) by 2022.

Overall, the report pinpoints many of the problems Africa faces today and will face during the year ahead. It looks at what policymakers need to do to temper recent economic shocks and create opportunities from them. On the domestic side, the report notes the shifting make-up of African economies and the importance of job creation particularly through industrialization. It discusses the growing trend of urbanization in Africa, how governance relates to economic growth and new, regional governance frameworks are developing, and how the continent is performing on good governance indicators. It also offers recommendations for addressing a variety of human development challenges, including gender equality, economic inequality, conflict, education, and climate change to allow African and international stakeholders to create and support a strong, sustainable, and successful Africa in what it generally sees as an optimistic future.

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SCF and FAO responses to the drought in Ethiopia

The “El Nino” phenomenon has significantly impacted weather patterns in Ethiopia over the last few months, causing severe drought, limiting agricultural production, seriously affecting pastoralist livelihoods and creating food insecurity among vulnerable households. The required levels of food aid have grown significantly since the middle of last year; and the demand for emergency food assistance is expected to grow during the coming months.

The Government is making every effort to mitigate the effects of the drought, both in the short and long-term. In recent years, as part of its substantial and successful development progress, it has set up structures that allow for conducting nationwide relief programs with better institutional and programmatic capacity to mitigate adverse effects of drought or other climatic effects. The Government and agencies have just released their Joint Humanitarian Requirements document. This is, in effect, a national emergency operational plan for drought response for 2016 and lists the responses needed per sector, identifying the humanitarian requirements for the coming year. It also identifies the organizations and bodies from Government, UN and NGOs which are expected to respond. The Government has also called for additional support to cover relief food needs, and international partners like Save the Children Ethiopia and FAO have been responding in the last week.

UK’s John Graham, Ethiopia Country Director of the Save the Children, UK, has just been on a visit to the worst hit areas of the Afar and Amhara Regional States. He was accompanied by the visiting CEOs of Save the Children from Finland, Norway and the United States who came to assess drought affected areas in Afar and Amhara Regional States, and by local media. Mr. Graham described the situation as “very bad “, but on “ the positive side”, he said, “ Ethiopia has had a period of economic growth so is not as vulnerable to this kind of drought, people’s capacity to survive the droughts is improved, we don’t see people heading off to feeding camps and things like that.  I am very impressed by the actions the Government has taken, first of all in measuring what the impact of this was, acknowledging it and getting it out to the public very quickly; and in terms of the response, allocating millions of dollars to the response. They have allocated more than the international community, usually it is the other way around. So the government is to be congratulated, we are very pleased to be working with them.”

John Graham told a press conference last week that livestock losses in the Afar Region were substantial. The impact of what was the worst drought in fifty years was very serious, and, inevitably, cases of severe acute malnourishment were being recorded. Current forecasts indicate that there could be 136,000 cases of moderate to acute malnutrition in the Afar Regional State by August, according to the Joint Humanitarian Requirement document released by the Government and humanitarian partners. At the national level, the figure could reach 400,000 cases of severe acute malnourishment by the same date. North Wello Zone is one of five most seriously drought-affected zones in the Amhara Regional State with 289,576 people needing food aid this month. The Humanitarian Requirement’s projection at the national level is that 1.7 million will need assistance to deal with moderate malnutrition in 2016. The Joint Report says the cost of overall needs for the coming year is currently estimated at US1.4 billion dollars.

John Graham said Save the Children had so far mobilized US100 million dollars. He told the press conference that the impact of the drought was getting worse but things were not getting out of hand. He said: “Inevitably when you have a drought and shortage of food, you are going to have children falling into malnutrition, but the great thing about what we saw is that through the [Government] screening systems, malnutrition is being detected early and is being dealt with.” The visiting Save the Children CEOs said that they were going to work to mobilize additional resources for drought mitigation from their respective governments as well as from individuals. Save the Children works in 60 of the worst affected areas in Ethiopia, providing food, water and medicine, and has delivered emergency food aid to 250,000 people and treated over 4,000 cases of child malnutrition since the drought started.

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) announced a $50 million plan to assist agriculture and livestock dependent households and enhance their resilience last week on January 15. The organization outlined an emergency roadmap aiming at assisting 1.8 million farmers and livestock keepers, reducing food gaps, and restoring agricultural production and incomes in 2016.  The first critical phase of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 50 million USD assistance will focus on the Meher season between January and June. This intervention will include a mix of emergency seed distribution, small scale irrigation projects and backyard gardening incentives targeted at empowering women’s groups with tools, knowledge and access to microloans. As the current drought has not only affected smallholder farmers but also seed producers, it has aggravated already existing seed shortages across the country and made it even harder for farmers to plant. For this reason, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) officials stated that FAO is interested in supporting 10,000 seed producers to produce high quality seeds and get the local market for seeds back on its feet.

According to FAO another 293,000 households will benefit from livestock interventions, such as the distribution of emergency animal feed, vaccination drives to protect some 3 million animals against diseases and restocking of 100,000 goats and sheep to vulnerable households. As many animals have been severely weakened by lack of food and water, the organization will also reimburse farmers for bringing unproductive livestock to slaughter and support community feed production. A third leg of the response plan will focus on strengthening livelihoods of more than 30,000 households and build their resilience to future shocks. This will include cash-for-work programs that will boost families' incomes and improve critical local infrastructure and water access for livestock. This part of the plan will also target farmers' and women's groups through integrated community projects that support community savings-and-loan schemes, farmer field schools and other methods to help families accumulate and diversify assets.

By focusing specifically on rebuilding the productive capacity of farming and pastoralist families, FAO is supporting the ongoing efforts of the Government, and other UN agencies and NGO partners, which are dealing with the immediate needs of at-risk families. FAO said that in Ethiopia, El Niño was not just a food crisis, it was also a livelihood crisis, underlining the need to intervene now to protect and rebuild livelihoods and people's capacity to produce, to prevent families from becoming long-term dependent on food aid.

This week, January 20-23, the World Economic Forum is holding its annual meeting in Davos. The theme of this year’s conference is “The Fourth Industrial Revolution” and among major issues it is addressing will be automation and technological innovations; China and the slow down in the China economy; the slowdown in emerging markets; and the proposed UK referendum on whether to stay or leave the EU. Another major topic will be refugees, and there will no doubt be discussions on climate change and the effect of the Paris COP21. Equally, according to Saadia Madsbjerg, Managing Director of the Rockefeller Foundation, the meeting should consider the links between these two issues, refugees and climate change. She argues that another refugee crisis is poised to begin and this will be caused not by civil war in Syria or Libya, or a repressive government in Eritrea, the factors driving the current refugee crisis in Europe, but by the environment.

She points out that years of climate degradation are causing populations to leave their homes to seek refuge elsewhere. According to the Norwegian Refugee Council since 2008 an average of 26.4 million people annually, equivalent of one person every second, have been forced to leave their homes due to natural catastrophes. Reasons include drought and food shortages in eastern and southern Africa; migration from coastal regions to escape rising sea levels in Bangladesh. If climate change continues unchecked, she says, as many as 200 million climate refugees may be on the move by 2050. The impact will be global.  To stem the tide of climate migration, leaders across government, philanthropy, business and civil society should be taking steps now.

Saadia Madsbjerg says the first step must be recognition of the problem; policymakers must reform laws and provide greater rights to people forced to seek refuge due to climate change. New financing solutions will be necessary. The new Green Climate Fund, for which advanced economies have agreed to invest $100 billion per year by 2020 to address the consequences of climate change, may be helpful, but it won’t be enough. Philanthropists and development institutions must focus on producing innovative financing mechanisms today, so solutions like the Extreme Climate Facility currently in development that aims to provide African countries with funds dedicated to climate adaptation, can be found to provide for communities in their struggle with the impacts of climate change.

Another necessary step is to provide immediate access to funds following natural disasters. This provides people with the possibility of staying and rebuilding after disasters. The African Risk Capacity catastrophe insurance pool, created in 2014, aims to reach 30 countries with nearly $1.5 billion of coverage against drought, flood and cyclones. In effect, this is indirectly insuring 160 million Africans. Another possibility under development is Financial Disaster Risk Management, a mechanism designed to channel funds more quickly to micro-finance institutions to provide loans to people living in disaster prone areas of Africa, Asia, and South America. This aims to raise more than $300 million by 2020. Saadia Madsbjerg says an answer to the problems posed by 200 million climate refugees on the move will not in stricter border controls or relocation quotas.  Solutions must emerge from joint efforts by international financial institutions and international development organizations. Responses to climate change must ensure people have the resources to stay resilient and remain where they want to be: at home. FAO, SCF and the Ethiopian Government would agree. 

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